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How to Start a Hemp Business

Starting a hemp business is easy. Some websites and articles say you can do it with as little as $1,000! However, that might be overly optimistic.  This post will walk you through some of the steps and issues to consider.

What are the basic boxes to check? Decide what part of the industry you want to be in. Know the law. Create a stellar business plan and financial projections. Get licensed. Lock in your supplier. That’s for starters.

How do you start a hemp business?

Is hemp the same as marijuana?

Yes slightly, but mostly no. Hemp and marijuana come from the same species of plant called “Cannabis Sativa L.” But hemp is not marijuana. The main difference is the resin content – hemp is low resin, marijuana is high resin. Industrial hemp means the plant Cannabis Sativa L, and any part of such plant, growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis. The marijuana plant is also a variety of Cannabis Sativa L, but it produces high THC levels and low CBD levels. In other words, cannabis with 0.3% or less of THC is not considered marijuana and – most importantly – is not federally regulated, which marijuana of course still is.

What do I need in my business plan?

You will need a great business plan to present your opportunity to partners, stakeholders, investors, lenders, vendors, major customers, service providers, and regulatory and licensing agencies. A good plan can include information on scores of subjects, but you can start with the business model, market-entry plan, products and services, market analysis, regulatory environment, team, metrics and milestones, financial strategy, and marketing plan, among other subjects.

How big is the market?

It’s big, really big, and growing like a pumpkin in September, but how big, no one knows yet.

The US retail consumer market for hemp CBD was estimated by some analysts to have been $591 million in 2018 and expected to reach $22 billion by 2022 – a CAGR of 147%.

An overview of the hemp industry

As of today, the big part of the hemp industry relates to CBD (Cannabidiol), a medically-useful substance that is believed to alleviate swelling, promote relaxation, and is already being added to thousands of consumer products (topicals, creams, pet foods, food, and beverages). CBD can be extracted from either marijuana or hemp, but legal CBD needs to come from hemp unless you are in a legal marijuana state.

There are a lot of different parts of the industry and numerous business choices to pick from: cultivate, harvest, process, extract, distribute raw material, manufacture consumer products, distribute, deliver, promote events, provide information services, offer scientific services to genetics or testing, provide business consulting or other professional services, and much more.

What is the law?

The U.S. situation is continually changing. As of this writing, 33 states (+ D.C.) allow the distribution of medical cannabis with THC (marijuana), and 11 states (plus D.C.) allow recreational cannabis with THC. The cultivation of industrial hemp (again, not more than 0.3% of THC in the biomass) is now federally legal in all states. However, marijuana is still federally illegal (as is hemp with more than 0.3% of THC) as a listed Schedule 1 substance. To add to the regulatory stew, the federal legality of industrial hemp cultivation does not supersede state, county, or local regulations. This means a state, county, or city can impose greater restrictions than the federal government has. Currently, about 15 states have come out with pro-hemp laws; the rest of the states are silent or vaguely neutral. For example, California (the biggest cannabis market in the U.S.) has three different, and potentially applicable, licenses for cannabis. Comparatively, as of now, only three California counties have licenses and regulations that allow hemp cultivation.

Wait – if hemp is federally legal, what’s the problem? It’s mostly a lack of regulations. Many states, counties, and cities simply haven’t yet gotten their respective arms around all the issues. In general, you can’t cultivate hemp in any specific U.S. county without a permit. Also, the FDA currently bars the inclusion of CBD in food products. Interstate transportation of legal hemp is legal, but not all the states, counties, cities, and law enforcement agencies understand this. Banks, so far, are keeping their distance from cannabis companies, pending the possible enactment of the (SAFE) Banking Act of 2019 that prohibits federal banking regulators from penalizing banks that offer cannabis-related financial services.

What is the safest path?

Be sure you’re in a state, county, and city that are supportive of hemp. Apply for, and obtain, all necessary licenses and permits. Be aware of all relevant laws. Be aware of the banking issues. Create a great business plan.

Where can I get the raw materials?

If you’re not going to cultivate your hemp and plan to get it from others, then one crucial key is to find a supplier that won’t pull back when he/she/it gets a better offer. Issues of concern include resin content, purity, feminization, freedom from contamination, and, of course, cost.

Next, whatever the source, it is important to get certifications of cGMP (current good manufacturing practices) that conform to state and FDA guidelines. The other essential certification is the CoA (Certification of Analysis) confirming plant species, levels of CBD and THC (no more than 0.3% for industrial hemp), and presence or absence of other substances such as heavy metals or pesticides).

What is the easiest way into the industry?

Let’s say that “easiest” means simplest-fastest-least costly. That would probably be information services – start an authoritative blog or news and information website, get a lot of readers, and sell ads and sponsorships. If you have, say, 3.5 million users looking at the site, you are probably generating many millions of ad views with CPMs in double digits. That’s a lot of coin.

The big shot way into the industry – assuming you don’t happen to already own a farm, a greenhouse, a processing facility, brands, and a distribution network – is a vertically-integrated operation, also known as “seed to sale,” a step into big business with correspondingly high startup costs. The costs might well include licensing and application fees, land, buildings, raw materials, labor, utilities, cultivation, seeds or clone plugs, harvesting, trimming, processing/extraction (separation-decortication, decarboxylation, winterizing, distillation), reporting, testing, and, of course, marketing, distribution, professional services, and financial service solutions.

If you need help thinking through the issues and crafting an outstanding cannabis industry business plan, please feel free to reach out.

Avatar for Lee Muhl

Lee Muhl

Lee is a Principal Consultant at Cayenne Consulting. Lee brings to Cayenne clients over 30 years of experience from his prior roles as a law partner in entertainment law, securities licensee, real estate broker, and multiple positions as a CEO/COO of early-stage media companies. Lee received his JD from the UCLA School of Law. View details.

This Post Has 16 Comments

  1. Hello Mr.Lee Muhl,

    My name is Anthionette Kamara, I was wondering if you know how I can connect with investors that are looking to have a cannabis farm and processing plant in West Africa.

    I am a registered nurse in San Diego, but was born and raised in Sierra Leone West Africa. I migrated to Sierra Leone 23 years ago and am now an American Citizen.
    I am currently working on building a community health and Allied Research School of Medicine, but in search of investors.

    Thank you very much for your anticipated help, looking forward to hearing from you soon.

    Respectfully Yours,

    Anthionette Kamara, BSN, RN, PHN

  2. Hello Ms. Kamara,
    Thank you for reaching out. Cayenne is not an investment broker, so unfortunately, we cannot advise you on where and how to find investors. In addition, raising capital is a task best left to the entrepreneur, as investors are often wary of deals brokered by “middle-men.” Your best course of action is to read as much as you can about the capital-raising process and work on growing your professional network while simultaneously doing what you can to “bootstrap” the business with your own resources. If you need help down the road preparing your pitch deck, business plan, and financial forecast, we would be pleased to work with you!
    Best regards,
    Akira Hirai, Cayenne Consulting

  3. My son and I are interested in starting a hemp processing plant here in Nevada. Looking for more information on setting up a process plant and starting the business. We are both new to this type of business.

    Tom Griffin

    1. Hi Tom, thanks for reaching out. I’ve passed your comment along to Lee Muhl, the author of this post and one of our hemp industry specialists. You should hear directly from him soon.

  4. Hi
    My friend and I are interested in creating a mobile processing plant, I am looking for any information that you could possible give me to lead me in the right direction.

  5. Hi, I recently obtained my growers license but and concerned due to the increase in the population of growers so I’m trying to get more information on the processing side of it. Which is more profitable growing or processing? Any information would be greatly appreciated.

  6. Hi Cheryl, comparing profitability of cultivation vs. processing is not apples to apples. There are tens to dozens of variables that may have an impact. Processing at present can be lucrative but costly to get into. What’s the demand in your locale? Similarly, the cultivation situation is different from place to place. In some places there could be an oversupply, in others a strong market. Some growers are having severe moisture problems and losing much/all of the 2019 crop to mildew and other pests. Growers in dry locales don’t face that problem. You know the saying… the devil’s in the details.

  7. Hello,
    I am interested in getting into the hemp business but I don’t have the necessary funds to, so I thought about starting in the information services by starting an authoritative blog/website. I was wondering what type of information do you feel would best grab readers. Also, how would I format this type of blog? And how would I ensure success from this endeavor, so that in the future I can attain enough profit to spread to other areas of the hemp business?

    1. Hi Angie, thanks for your note. There are many good websites that will walk you through the process of starting and profiting from a blog. You might look at a site like to get started. One thing that you need to do is to know your audience, so you need to figure out who you want to write for and then think about what you think they want to learn about (or you can contact some of your intended readers and ask them what they think you should write about). Good luck!

  8. I am interested in growing hemp in the state of Louisiana. I have over 50 acres with which to start. I’ve already lined up a few investors who’ve said they are willing to talk numbers. However I still have many questions as to which licenses I would need to have in order to be in compliance with state laws. Can you provide me with some suggestions.

  9. Hi Pam, thanks for your inquiry.
    Raising hemp, in any jurisdiction, raises quite a few questions and issues for decision.
    True, the cultivation of very low-THC hemp is now federally allowed, but grows are also usually subject to many regulations depending on the state-county-city of the cultivation.
    In other words, the federal legalization of industrial hemp, the ability to move it in interstate commerce, and the granting of one or more state licenses, still does not deprive localities of the right to regulate or legislate. So the entrepreneur will need to develop clear understanding of all the related issues.
    There are also many factors that can affect a particular grow and the business/investment plans that grow out of that. We are happy to help if you wish. Simply fill out our inquiry form and you will be connected to the best consultant for your project.

  10. Hello. I am interested in starting a hemp farm and cultivating for fiber and oil in Maryland. I understand that a strong business plan makes for a vital foundation into this industry and was seeking advisement towards suggested books for reference and guidance. Thank you.

  11. Hi Robert,
    Our firm prepares business plans and we have several consultants specializing in the cannabis, hemp, and CBD industries, including the author of this post. If you’re interested in hiring us to help, you can provide some details about your business at and we will have one of our specialists reach out to you.
    Best regards,

  12. Hello,
    I want to set up a hemp processing plant and want to know more about the required machinery and can a single plant process hemp for different end products i.e. CBD , paper, hempcrete, fabric etc. and also information about the plant setup process.
    Thank you

    1. A single plant could produce a variety of output, but it would actually be multiple plants or sections, each with its own type of machinery. Machinery to produce fiber (for hempcrete, e.g.,) is very different than the machinery to produce CBD. A lot of the moving parts to set up the plant are in the original blog post. We work with clients constantly who are creating hemp production operations and if you would be interested in our assistance, we can be engaged to help with the project.

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